LaTeX is a program designed to produce very high quality typesetting. They're normally used for preparing documents such as scientific papers and other documents related to academia. It is especially good for mathematical symbols. The other alternative is using Word, but we all know what a pain that can be once the number of equations starts to increase.
Well, getting started with LaTeX can be a pain too, so here I've made a quick reference guide for beginning with LaTeX. Only the basic formatting is covered right now. Mathematical symbols and equations will be added soon.